2nd World Congress and Expo on

Oil, Gas and Petrochemistry

November 28-30, 2016, Abu Dhabi, UAE

Scientific Programme(Day 1 : Nov-28-2016)

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Pipelines & Transportation & Process Technology

Session Introduction

Ibtisam Kamal
Soran University, Iraq
Title: Modeling Of The Acid Catalyzed In-Situ Transesterification Process For Biodiesel Production

Biography: Prof. Dr. Ibtisam Kamal has done PhD in Basrah University- Iraq and HDR in process engineering at La Rochelle University, France. She has published more than hundered and twenty research articles in addition to two patents. Her research interest includes, modeling, optimization and simulation of production and treatment processes of petroleum and petrochemical products, as well as biofules from renewable resources using Instant Control Pressure Drop Technology (DIC).

Abstract: In the present work the acid catalyzed in-situ transesterfication process of the precursory feedstock Camelina seeds for the production of biodiesel fuel was studied. The reaction has been performed for two hours at 60oC. Modeling the effect of solvent/seeds ratio and catalyst concentration on % conversion of the seeds to biodiesel was carried out using Response Surface Methodology. The reactants were proportioned according to an experimental central composite design with two operating parameter (22=4 factorial points, 2*2 star-points and 5 repetitions of central point). The experimental design was adopted after preliminary experiments. The analysis of the estimated model confirmed that the two independent variables are significant, however solvent/seeds ratio was the top most significant compared to acid concentration. Biodiesel yield % seemed increases with increasing the wt. % of the acid catalyst and solvent/seeds ratio. The optimized values of % wt. acid catalyst and solvent/seeds ratio were 10 % wt./wt. (catalyst/ seed) and 50:1 solvent/seeds ratio respectively for an optimized biodiesel yield of 73%. The adjusted regression coefficient value (R2 = 95.10 %) reflected the efficient capability of the model to explain the experimental results.

Sukanta Kumar Dash
Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, India
Title: Absorption Characteristics of CO2 in Aqueous MDEA and N-(2-Aminoethyl) Piperazine used in Gas Treating and CO2 capture processes.

Biography: Dr. Sukanta K. Dash obtained his PhD degree from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur and M Tech. from National Institute of Technology, Rourkela in Chemical Engineering. Presently he is working as an Asst. Professor with the Department of Chemical Engineering, PDPU, Gandhinagar, India. Dr. Dash has nearly 11 years of academic experience and teaching various subjects like Mass Transfer, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Heat Transfer, Process Modeling and Simulation, Computer Aided Process Engineering etc. Apart from this he has 7 years of research and industrial consultancy in Carbon Capture projects (CCS) and Floating Storage LNG Re-gasification projects (FSRU). He has published about 12 peer reviewed International Journal papers having cumulative impact factor of more than 25 and about 30 peer reviewed International/National conferences papers. He has also received several awards.

Abstract: Separation of acidic gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), from natural gas streams is an important operation in industrial gas treating processes. Again CO2 removal form flue gas streams of fossil fuel power plants is also important to combat the increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere which is a primary cause for global warming and climate change. The widely used processes for these applications are regenerative chemical absorption of CO2 in aqueous alkanolamines, but these solvents should meet certain criteria if they are to be used as solvents for flue gas treating. In this work the absorption rate measurements of CO2 in N-(2-aminoethyl) piperazine (AEP) and N-Methyldiethanol amine (MDEA) has been presented at 313 K and CO2 partial pressure of range of (1‒260) kPa. As equilibrium capacity of the solvent is important, new vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data of CO2 with the mixed solvent (MDEA+AEP) has also been presented. The experiments have been carried out using a stirred cell reactor with flat gas-liquid interface adopting the pressure decrease method. The concentration of single amine (AEP) in the aqueous solution and total amine concentration in the mixed solvent has been kept at 30 mass % and 40 mass % respectively. From the kinetics study, it has been observed that aqueous aq. AEP has a fast kinetics towards CO2 and can be used as a CO2 capture solvent. It also can be used as an activator with other solvents such as MDEA and 2-amino-2methy-1-propanol (AMP). As MDEA has high equilibrium capacity and low regeneration energy requirement, this solvent can be suitable for both CO2 separation from natural gas streams as well as flue gas streams.

Sayed Mahdi Hejazi
Isfahan University of Technology, Iran
Title: Design and Fabrication of a Novel Hybrid Composite Pipe used in Oil Transportation Industry

Biography: Dr. Sayed Mahdi Hejazi did his PhD from Isfahan University of Technology, Iran, he has published several research articles. His research interest includes, technical textile and composite structures specially hybrid composite pipes.

Abstract: Underground pipes are used to transport oil, gas, water, sanitation and protection of cables and transmission lines. In this study, a new system for the production of filament-wound composite pipes was developed by using hybrid filaments. Alignment of filaments relative to each other, the winding angle and production system were the variables affecting the results. By using the filament winding machine, cylindrical structures were produced. According to the ASTM D2412 standard the pressure test was conducted on composite samples. The results showed that compressive properties of samples oriented with seven-layer fibers compared to samples reinforced by five and nine layers with the same matrix volume fraction is better, which is due to the distribution of force by the matrix. It was also found that pipes with a hybrid structure propose better compressive properties compared to laminated samples as well as common glass/epoxy. Hybrid multi-layered samples resisted up to 28 mm deflection under compressive loading meanwhile didn't show any crack propagation. While the sample of glass / epoxy (common in the industry), after 2 to 5 mm compressive loading, began to fail, and before reaching 11 mm deflection, delamination could be also seen. On the whole, the results showed that producing of filament-wound pipes by using hybrid orientation and winding angle of 55° is economically and mechanically the most feasible production method. In the final, pipe stiffness parameter was obtained for all samples and it was revealed that some engineered pipes satisfy the requirements to be buried within the soil.

I. N. Karelin
I. M. Gubkin Russian State Oil and Gas University, Russian Federation
Title: Gas-oil pipeline control valve


Abstract: The critical analysis of the existing schemes and designs of the gas-oil pipeline control devices is presented in article. The purpose of the analysis is the assessment of these products in respect of their energy efficiency. Considering the exposed shortcomings of the existing control devices, the new scheme of overlapping of an opening through passage of the valve and, respectively, the constructive scheme of its realization is offered. The expected advantages of a perspective product are shown.

Health, Safety, and Environment & others

Session Introduction

Markatos, Nicolas – Chris
National Technical University of Athens, Greece
Title: CFD in Environmental Engineering and risk analysis with emphasis to the petrochemical industry

Biography: MARKATOS, NICOLAS – CHRIS. Diploma Chemical Engineering at the National Technical University of Athens. Diploma Imperial College, PhD in Engineering, Imperial College, University of London. Reader at University of Greenwich, London. Professor of National Technical University of Athens. Head of Chemical Engineering Department. Rector of National Technical University of Athens. Senior Visitor, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, and By-Fellow, Selwyn College, University of Cambridge. Visiting Professor University of Surrey. Visiting Professor Texas A&M University at Qatar. Author 4 books, over 450 scientific papers, h-factor 40. Recipient Certificate of Recognition Inventions Council NASA, others. Scientific interests include transport phenomena in single - and multi – phase flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Major industrial hazards and risk assessment, computations of turbulence and their engineering and environmental applications. Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA).

Abstract: This presentation describes the mathematical modeling and associated computer simulations of environmental problems related to flow and heat/mass transfer. Many key “issues” in designing environmental protection systems, and in performing environmental risk assessment and control, are related to the behavior of fluids in turbulent flow, often involving more than one phase, with chemical reaction or heat transfer. This is particularly true in the petrochemical industries. Computational-Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) techniques have shown great potential for analyzing these processes and are very valuable to the environmental engineer and scientist, by reducing the need to resort to “cut and try” approaches to the design of complex environmental-protection systems and to any relevant decision making process. Multi-dimensional, multiphase dynamic models for the dispersion of air, water and soil pollutants and for the prediction of environmental risks are presented. Results using model simulations are presented for some cases of atmospheric and marine pollution relating to the petrochemical industry processes, as well as for the environmental risks of fires and of petrol-tank explosions. It is concluded that the results are physically plausible and can be used with confidence. Air, water and soil management systems of the oil and gas industry can be improved by the application of these computational prediction techniques.

B.Padma S.Rao
Title: Acid Gas Dispersion Modeling and Management for its Safe Disposal from Oil and Gas Processing Unit

Biography: Mrs. B.Padma S.Rao did her Masters in Civil (Env) Engg from Vishveshwaraiyya National Institute of Technology, VNIT, Nagpur, India, LEAD Fellow of Rockfellar foundation,UK. She has published more than 15 research articles in SCI journals and about 50 research articles in national journals. Her research interest includes, air pollution monitoring , mamagement and control. She has more than 25 years of experience in research.

Abstract: Oil and Natural Gas processing industry has Gas Sweetening Units for the purpose of removing Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S), Sulphur-di-oxide (SO2) and carbon di-oxide (CO2) gases from the natural gas which are released in the atmosphere creating high levels of acid gas exposure in and around the units. Over time, the quality of crude oil and natural gas also changes and its sulfur content and other impurities may gradually get increased. It is hence essential to treat this gas for its safe disposal. In this article, a case study is discussed to evaluate the various aspects for assessing the acid gas exposure, and its safe disposal. High risk zones of acid gas exposure is estimated based on monitored ambient levels of acid gas (H2S/SO2) in and around the unit and various guidelines for its control are discussed. The base emission as well as its control load of acid gas is evaluated using various options and dispersion modeling was undertaken for various scenarios to predict its Impact in and around the unit through CALPUFF dispersion model. The compliance aspects of the predicted maximum GLC were evaluated and options for its safe disposal is highlighted. This study may further help for acid gas exposure assessment and management for safe disposal.

Tobias Innocent Ndubuisi Ezejiofor
Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
Title: Oxidative Stress Parameters as Markers of Exposure to Toxic Organic Pollutants among Petroleum Distribution Industry Workers in Nigeria

Biography: Dr Ezejiofor obtained his PhD(Environmental Health Biology) from Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. A Fellow of College of Biomedical Engineering and Technology of Nigeria, he is licensed by the Environmental Health Officers Registration Council of Nigeria(EHORECON) and Medical Laboratory Science Council of Nigeria(MLSCN), and also belongs to several national and international professional and learned societies. He has published several journal articles, his research interests covering aspects of health, safety & environment and toxicology. Editorial board member of some journals, he serves as reviewer to several others. He had also attended and presented papers at several local and international conferences.

Abstract: Exposures in chemically hostile environments often result in generation of oxidative stress within the body, on account of excessive production of free radicals. The success of the body in dousing the cascade of ill-events associated with the presence of free radicals depends on the availability of equally potent agents that provide counteractive effects to the activities of free radicals. These agents also known as antioxidants give protection to the body by successfully mopping up excess free radicals in the body. Excess of the radicals over that of the body’s antioxidants reserve, as may happen following exposure to toxic organic pollutants in an industrial environment, often favours the establishment of sundry health effects. This study was designed to examine the status of oxidative stress parameters as possible markers of exposure to toxic organic pollutants among petroleum distribution industry workers in Nigeria. Blood sample (5ml) was collected from each of the 50 study participants consisting of 35 oil workers (exposed), and 15 non oil workers (referents). Standard assay methods were adopted for analyses of the parameters of interest. Result of the study showed that for oil workers, Malondialdehyde(MDA) ranged 37.9 - 96.70 (Mean=59.31±11.90 mg/dl), Vitamin C, 0.35-1.52 (0.78±0.28 mg/dl),Vitamin E, 0.22-0.51(0.31±0.06mg/dl), and reduced glutathione (GSH) ranged 0.2-0.8 with a mean of 0.49±0.20mg/dl; while among the non-oil workers the values were as follows: MDA, 30.3-60.7(49.58±8.12 mg/dl), Vitamin C, 0.41-2.22 (1.26±0.42 mg/dl), Vitamin E, 0.24-1.99(0.44±0.43 mg/dl), GSH, 0.4-1.7 (mean= 0.83±0.32 mg/dl) respectively. A review of the results showed that, among the oil workers, the lipid peroxidation substance, MDA was significantly higher (P=0.006) while the antioxidant parameters were significantly lower (p<0.001), whereas the reverse was the case among the non-oil workers, because MDA was significantly lower in them (P<0.001) even as most of the antioxidant parameters were significantly higher in them. Higher lipid peroxidation substance (MDA) and a dwindling antioxidants status as found among the oil workers gives a clear signal of a higher presence of free radicals that is depleting the antioxidants reserves in the oil workers as compared with the reverse situation among their non-oil work referents, indicating that relative to the referents, the oil workers were most likely to be affected by adverse conditions associated with oxidative stress including a greater tendency to sundry health effects. The results also showed that oxidative stress markers can indeed serve as putative markers of exposure to toxic organic pollutants in the oil and gas industry.

Ali A Garrouch
Kuwait University, Kuwait
Title: Development of a Fuzzy Logic Expert system for the diagnosis of formation damage caused by organic scale deposits and surface active agents

Biography: Dr. Ali Garrouch holds a Ph. D. and M.S. degrees from the University of Texas at Austin, and a B.S. degree from Louisiana State University, all in Petroleum Engineering. He currently holds a Professor of Petroleum Engineering position at Kuwait University. Dr. Ali Garrouch specializes in the area of Petrophysics. His teaching and research areas include Well Log Interpretation, Core Analysis, Formation Damage Diagnosis, Acidizing, and Applications of Artificial Intelligence to the Petroleum Industry. He has a combined experience of over 23 years in academia, research and consulting to the petroleum industry.

Abstract: This paper reports on the development of a fuzzy expert system (FODEX) for aiding in the preliminary diagnosis of formation damage types that consist of emulsions, water blocks, wettability reversal and the deposition of asphaltenes and wax in hydrocarbon reservoirs. The reasoning process is based on compiled rules that have been arranged in decision trees constructed using knowledge derived from standard industrial practices integrated with empirical models to assure vigorous expert opinion. The damage diagnostic process is performed by walking through the history of the reservoir from drilling to production, stimulation, EOR processes, and workover jobs. The complete history of the well is carefully scrutinized for evidence of any field practices that might cause formation damage. FODEX automates the reasoning process embedded in the decision trees using logic blocks represented as four modules. Fuzzy logic has been used in handling incomplete and conflicting knowledge encountered in determining the likelihood of asphaltene and wax deposition. The developed formation damage expert system has been tested with three documented field cases of producing wells in the Rangely, Typhoon, and Magwa-Marrat oil reservoirs. FODEX decisions regarding the type of damage inflicted on these fields have been validated with compositional PVT simulation software. The expert system made a thorough diagnosis of damage types, in agreement with PVT simulations, field observations, PVT cell testing and special core analysis.

Maged Marghany
University Putra Malaysia, Malaysia
Title: Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm for Oil Spill Automatic Detection


Abstract: Oil spill pollution has a substantial role in damaging the marine ecosystem. Oil spill that floats on top of water, as well as decreasing the fauna populations, affects the food chain in the ecosystem. In fact, oil spill is reducing the sunlight penetrates the water, limiting the photosynthesis of marine plants and phytoplankton. Moreover, marine mammals for instance, disclosed to oil spills their insulating capacities are reduced, and so making them more vulnerable to temperature variations and much less buoyant in the seawater. This study has demonstrated a design tool for oil spill detection in SAR satellite data using optimization of Entropy based Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (E-MMGA)which based on Pareto optimal solutions. The study also shows that optimization entropy based Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithmprovides an accurate pattern of oil slick in SAR data. This shown by 85% for oil spill, 10% look–alike and 5% for sea roughness using the receiver –operational characteristics (ROC) curve. The E-MMGA also shows excellent performance in SAR data. In conclusion, E-MMGA can be used as optimization for entropy to perform an automatic detection of oil spill in SAR satellite data.

Unconventional Resources & Sustainable Energy

Session Introduction

Hadi A. Belhaj
The Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi
Title: Common Features of Unconventional Reservoirs and Conventional Reservoirs’ Thick TZs Facilitates Their Characterization and Modeling

Biography: Dr. Hadi Belhaj is a faculty member with the Petroleum Institute teaching varieties of petroleum engineering courses; from Reservoir Engineering to Reservoir Characterization & Modeling to Petroleum Economics and Risk Analysis. Dr. H.A. Belhaj has over 30 years of combined petroleum industrial and academic experience with key qualifications in drilling engineering, well completion, reservoir engineering, reservoir simulation, modeling fractured reservoirs, well stimulation, sand production control technology, and petroleum economics and risk analysis. Geographically, his experience is spread over North America, Europe, North Africa, Asia and the Middle-East. Dr. Belhaj is a registered professional engineer and active member of several professional societies and organizations around the globe. He is an active member with SPE since 1980 and the recipient of the SPE Regional Distinguished Achievement for Petroleum Engineering Faculty Award 2013. During the past ten years, Dr. Belhaj has contributed a number of consortium research proposals dealt with petroleum engineering and energy exploitation challenging issues. This effort generated over $17 Millions of research grants. Dr. Belhaj has presented over 100 guest speaker lectures, seminars and workshops for both industry and academia covering different aspects of petroleum engineering. Dr. Belhaj published over 100 journal and conference proceedings articles.

Abstract: Unconventional reservoirs utilization has been a challenging issue since their discoveries long ago! In the past, very low oil prices hindered their developments for the associated capital and operating costs. After the climb of oil prices peaking at almost $150/barrel in 2007, they crawled into the oil and gas production market. Today, they become part of the oil and gas production equation! Thick capillary transition zones of conventional reservoirs, especially, carbonates on the other hand, has demonstrated another challenge in characterization and modeling. Recently, in an effort to characterize and model both unconventional reservoirs and TZs of conventional reservoirs, we found a very interesting common ground between the two and we believe this similiarity can assist in their characterization, modeling and prediciting their behaviors. In this presentation, we share some of the useful findings of this study. Tight formation rocks “very low permeability” is the reason behind encountering thick TZs and also, it’s the main feature of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. Complications and difficulty to produce is a consequence of this phenomena. Capillary forces, in addition to wettability and other SCAL properties become very important in such situation. As for the TZ characterization and modeling, 3D NMR and conventional core analysis (CCA) were employed for the petrophysical characterization of TZ rock samples of a carbonate reservoir from a case study from the Middle East. The results reveal three distinct rock types with average NMR-T2 cutoffs of 292 ms, 164 ms and 63 ms for the topmost, middle and lowermost samples of the reservoir respectively. Electrical resistivity, formation factor and cementation exponent were also measured at ambient and reservoir (2500 psi and 85 °C) conditions. It was found that the cementation exponent increases from 1.9 to 2.4 under overburden conditions and decreases in a stepwise manner during unloading confining pressure respectively, but not to the initial value due to hysteresis. The mean values of cementation exponent and formation factor at reservoir conditions are 30% and 50% higher than ambient conditions. This implies that the electrical parameters, at ambient condition, would lead to underestimation of water saturation which is more significant in oil zones. Resistivity index and capillary pressure measurements were conducted at reservoir conditions using a DCI PCRI systems mimicking drainage and imbibition to investigate the hysteresis and saturation exponent changes. The average Swi values determined at reservoir conditions from the capillary pressure measurement has been found to be 15% lower than the values of ambient conditions. Again the saturation exponent estimated during drainage and imbibition at reservoir conditions range from 1.5 – 4.0 for different rock types. Saturation functions were developed for each rock type from measured electrical parameters at reservoir conditions by using the modified Archie’s equation for the TZ of the carbonate reservoir. The outcome of study has succeeded to correct the field resistivity log readings which, previously, overestimate the water saturation distribution. Hence, original fluid saturation distribution (static mode) and fluid mobility (dynamic mode) can be better estimated. This will be reflected on correcting original oil in place (OOIP) and recovery factor (RF) for both conventional and unconventional reservoirs. Findings of this study are expected to trigger more credible saturation functions that help predicting the behaviors of both conventional and unconventional reservoirs in both static and dynamic modes.

Hamada GM 
Future University in Egypt, Egypt
Title: Development and Forecasting of Conventional and Unconventional Hydrocarbon Reserves as Energy Resource in 21th Century

Biography: Gharib M. Hamada (gharib.hamada@fue.edu.eg) is Professor at the Department of Petroleum Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Future University, Egypt. He previously worked for United Arab Emirates University, UAE, The British University in Egypt, Egypt; King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Saudi Arabia, Cairo University and Ain Shams University, Egypt; King Saud University, Saudi Arabia; Technical University of Denmark, Denmark, and Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman. Hamada has more than 140 papers published in referred scientific journals and presented at technical conferences. Hamada holds BS and MS in petroleum engineering from Cairo University, Egypt and DEA and. D'Ingenieur in applied geophysics from Bordeaux University, France. He is a member of SPE, SPWLA and SCA.

Abstract: Conventional and unconventional oil and gas come from the same original geologic formations multiple layers in sediment basins all over the world. The recovery rate may also be very different from one reservoir to another even though they should be conventional.Conventional oil or gas comes from geological formations that are relatively straightforward to develop, they don’t need specialized technologies to unlock their potential. By contrast, unconventional hydrocarbon resourcesare trapped in reservoirs with low permeabilitymeaning limited ability for the oil or natural gas to flow through the rock and into a wellbore or are found in a special geological environment and then new technology needed for oil extraction. Unconventional oil is petroleum extracted using techniques other than the conventionaloil well methods. Oil industriesacross the globe are investing in unconventional oil sources due to the increasing scarcity of conventional oil reserves. Unconventional oil and gas reserves include: 1) Heavy oil sands, tar sands or, more technically, bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit, 2) Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grainedsedimentary rock containing significant amounts of kerogen from which technology can extract liquid hydrocarbons (shale oil) and combustible shale gas and 3) Unconventional gas reserves refer to sources of natural gas production that are, in a given era and location, considered to be new and different such as coalbedmethane and synthetic natural gas. Abundant supplies of oil form the foundation of modern industrial economies, but the capacity to maintain and grow global supply is attracting increasing concern. It is must to manage both conventional and unconventional oil and gas reserve to rationally supply global market with required emery. This paper concentrates on how to develop the conventional hydrocarbon reserve to keep its global production as effective as possible and how to activate the unconventional oil and gas reserve and proposing technology to optimize the recovery of the unconventional reserves as energy resources in 21th centauryeither compliment or new energy resources to the conventional hydrocarbon reserve.

Kifayat Ullah
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan
Title: Studies on acid value reduction of Neem seed oil and biodiesel production

Biography: Kifayat Ullah has completed his PhD at the age of 30 years from Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. He is working as Assistant Professor in Biosciences Department, COMSASTS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. He has published more than 15 papers in reputed journals and has been serving as an active faculty memebr in COMSATS Institute.

Abstract: Biodiesel produced from a wide variety of vegetable oils is expected to replace diesel fuel. Conventional biodiesel production method from edible or non-edible type oils is alkaline transesterification. The conflict between food and fuel led to identify more than fifty non-edible oil sources for biodiesel production. Neem seed oil, one of the easily available non-edible oils, was undergone two step acid esterification process to reduce the high free fatty acid (FFA) content from 23.08% to 0.53%. Acid esterification was carried out by 50% (v/v) methanol with 1% (v/v) sulphuric acid (H2SO4) as the acid catalyst at a temperature of 45±5 oC in 1 hour reaction time. The oil separated from the first step was subsequently treated in the second step by 30% (v/v) methanol and 1% (v/v) H2SO4 with 1 hour reaction time at the same temperature. The acid esterified oil was subjected to alkaline transesterification with 1:9 molar ratio of oil to methanol and 1.5 % (w/w) potassium hydroxide as the base catalyst at a temperature of 50±3 oC with 40 minutes reaction time. The result obtained shows better biodiesel yield compared with many studies in literature.

Geology & Exploration & Upstream/Downstream & Midstream Integration

Session Introduction

Fatma Taktak
University El Manar, Tunisia
Title: Stratigraphy sequences and Tectonic Control of the Eocene/lower Miocene Hydrocarbon Systems of the Gulf of Gabes Basin in Tunisia

Biography: Dr. Fatma Taktak is currently is Assistant professor of Petroleum Engineering at the University of Modern Sciences-UAE. She also holds the position of the Chair of Master Degree in Science of Petroleum Operation management program.She has her expertise in evaluation and passion in improving the geological model of petroleum reservoirs and simulation. Her open and contextual evaluation model based on responsive constructivists creates new pathways for improving exploration and prospection. She has built this model after years of experience in research, evaluation, teaching and administration both in Oil companies and Education institutions. The foundation of reservoir modelling is based on recent fieldwork, stratigraphic data, well results and wire line log details, and seismic 2D/3D data, that utilizes the previous generations of modeling and Geo-dynamics & Modelling of carbonate platforms: measurement, description and analyze.

Abstract: The objectives of this work is to demonstrate the close time palogeographic relationships and geodynamic configurations of the Eocene to Langhian series considered two major and superposed petroleum systems in the GGB covering a time span from the Eocene to the Lower-Middle Langhian times. The main aim of this study is to demonstrate the close time palogeographic relationships and configurations of these two major and superposed petroleum systems in the GGB covering a time span from the Eocene to the Lower-Middle Langhian times. The major constraints on the lithotectonic evolution, differentiation of sedimentary deposits and basin geometry are also examined in the light of sismostratigraphical and sismotectonic interpretations. The modeling approach helps to contribute of the economic potential of the carbonate platform of Eocene to Langhian series in the GGB. The main results Mesozoic era dominated by distension / transtension in relation to global Tethyan and geodynamic events, a period of transpressional initiated in the Santonian-Campanian, are formed in larger bending radii folds, with a recovery during the Eocene. Basin platform transition towards SW-NE, appears clearly controlled by tectonic transverse steering dominant NW-SE, Nature of the sliding tectonic cross resulted in flowers fault structures, elevated structures, platforms deposits seats carbonate and blocks collapses half grabens in the presence of significant vertical component of rejection on oblique sliding cross accidents. In this work, we identified a very similar scenario occurs again during the Oligocene transition with the same polarity direction, platform facies of the Kétatna formation, and pelagic facies of Salammbô formation. The benthic El Garia and Ketatna Formations and the corresponding coeval but pelagic Boudabbous and Salammbô Formations extend in a broad area covering the gulf of Hammamet, Pelagian Block and gulf of Gabes in the Southeast Tunisia. A similar geodynamic fact generates the same structures and paleogeography results. The reconstruction of petroleum system series in the GGB help decipher a stratigraphical scenario of repetitive benthic carbonate platforms stacked in the sequence of stratigraphic ages, fitting laterally and upwards into pelagic counterparts. The Eocene El Garia reservoir passes laterally to into the Boudabbous source rock Formation.

Ratov Boranbay Tovbasarovich
Kazakh National Research Technical University, Kazhakstan
Title: About a half-wave length of the bottom-hole core drill composed of structural elements of different stiffness

Biography: Ratov Boranbay Tovbasarovich - PhD, Assoc. Professor, Academician (IAELPS), (2013), member of the Russian Geographical Society (RGS), (2014), Head of the Department "Technology and equipment for drilling of wells," the Kazakh National Research Technical University named after K. I. Satpayev, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Abstract: In the formation of the well under the influence of an axial load and speed core drilling shell is curved, with its lower bottomhole part consists of elements of different stiffness: a set of core and drill pipe. To determine the length of the half-wave in this part of the technological tools used energy method, according to which the whole work of external forces on the length of said potential energy goes into twisted drill. The solution of the corresponding equation is possible to obtain a formula for determining the length of the half-wave of the bottom-hole shell. The resulting relationship is different from the well-known formula B. I. Vozdvizhenskogo, MG Vasilyeva that it additionally takes into account the ratio of the core set, and half-wave ratio of moments of inertia and the core set of drill pipes and the mass ratio of coring and drilling labor per unit length. To reduce the curvature of the wells is recommended to install in the "crests" half-waves of the bottomhole shell ribs.

A.A. Azab
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Egypt
Title: Basement Structures Of Northeast Bahariya Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt, As Inferred From Potential Field Data

Biography: A.A. Azab is presently working as a faculty at the Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Egypt. His research interests are Organic chemistry, Nano technology and Petrochemistry. His skills are nano particle synthesis, nano materials, electro chemistry etc. He has published many scientific articles in journals.

Abstract: The objective of this paper is to interpret the aeromagnetic and gravity maps, in association with the available seismic datafor delineating the regional subsurface structural framework and tectonic setting of the basement complex and the overlying sedimentary cover. Herein, a number of basic interpretation techniques were applied, such as the separation of RTP magnetic and gravity anomalies into their regional and residual components. Besides, the statistical trend analysis was carried out using the successive overlap technique to define the main tectonic trends that are responsible for deep and shallow structures. Based on trend analysis results, a stress-strain diagram was constructed for explaining the origin of the stresses that affected the area through its geologic times. Euler deconvolutionwas executed to detect the possible positions and depths of the buried structures. As well, the combined 2.5D magnetic and gravity modeling was performed based on the seismicreflection profiles. The final image was reached by constructing a tectonic map for the basement surface. It was obtained through integration of all results from the previous analysis methods and geologic information. The statistical trend analysis reveals that, the area was affected by three major trends in the ENE, NW and E-W directions, in addition to four structural trends, of subordinate order, in the NE, WNW, NNE and NNW directions. The stress-diagram suggests that the region have been subjected to two phases of tectonism with six cycles of deformation. The gravity/magnetic models show that the basement surface is rough, highly deformed and homogenous in composition. They indicate that the sedimentary section is affected and controlled by deep and nearly vertical basement faults. These normal faults dissected the basement into several tilt blocks forming horsts and grabens, overlain by a sedimentary section ranges from1to 2.5km. The models gave evidence that basement faults were intruded by some basic dykes at shallow depths in the western and northern parts. The basement structural map suggests a Precambrian horst, in the form of uplifted blocks, cut across the study area in the NE direction. This low depth anticlinal fold is associated with Cairo-Bahariya uplift, and is bounded by two synclinal structures from both sides, the Bahariya low to the west and W.Assuit Basin to the east. The interpreted structure reveals two episodes of folding, where the older WNW to NW set of folds/faultswere cut by a major NE fold/fault structures. These NE trending structures (Syrian arc) seem to be intersected by a younger set of the NW (Suez) trending faults.This makes the area to be an attractive for the future prospection, as an extended complex flank of the adjacent prolific basins.

Jwngsar Brahma
Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, India
Title: Estimation of Thomsen’s parameters in western and central part of Tripura, India using core samples

Biography: Dr. Jwngsar Brahma did his PhD from Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University,India. He has published several reasrch articles in reputed internation journals. Dr. Jwngsar Brahma also contributed a lot as a reviewer of different international journals in his credit. His research intrest includes, Geothermal Energy, Unconventional energy resources, Reservoir Simulation and Modeling , Pore Pressure Prediction and Well Planning & Design, real time earthquakes monitoring etc. He has participated in various professional training programs such as Familiarity with real time Seismic data analysis using Seisan and Scream Software, Experienced in Real Time Earthquake Monitoring etc. At present he is working as an Assistant Professor at Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University, India.

Abstract: Anisotropic parameters play very important role in seismic data processing technique in anisotropic media. The anisotropic parameters can be quantified by estimating Thomsen’s parameters. The purpose of this study is to estimate P – wave anisotropy parameters namely ɛ and δ and S – wave anisotropy γ for transversely isotropic (TI) media. Four rock samples were collected from four different wells situated in study area. The ultrasonic transmission method has been used to measure P – wave, Sh – wave and Sv – wave travel times as a function of orientation and confining pressure. The five independent stiffness’s constants of the samples were estimated. The velocity anisotropies together with the behaviour of the elastic constant for all rock samples are observed. The elastic anisotropy of the sandstone and sandy shales is due to the combined effects of pores, cracks; minerals grain orientation, lamination and foliation. The highest P – wave anisotropy is exhibit by sandy shales and the lowest.

Vinay Babu
Uttaranchal University, India
Title: Sedimentary Provenance Analysis of Vindhyan Basin: Use of Principle Component Analysis

Biography: Mr. Vinay Babu has completed M.Tech. Petroleum Exploration from ISM, Dhanbad and M.Sc. from Indian IIT Roorkee. He is involved in doctoral studies at UPES Dehradun. Currently he is working as an Assistant Professor and Head – Petroleum Engineering, Uttaranchal University, Dehradun, India. He started his career with Vedanta Resources Plc. And later joined PDPU, Gandhingar. Also, he holds additional position of Research Scientist – Centre of Excellence of Geothermal Energy, PDPU. He has also visited Tulsa and Oklahoma for establishing collaborative platforms for research & development. Also, he acted as faculty advisor of PDPU Student Chapter of AAPG.

Abstract: Geochemistry of sediments provides information for the establishment of palaeoclimate, tectonic evolution and provenance of sedimentary basins. The role of Principle Component Analysis using compositional data is upcoming area for provenance studies. The extracted principle components help to understand mainly source rock composition and their weathering trends. The present study investigates the provenance of the Paleo-Meso Proterozoic sediments of Vindhyan Supergroup, Central India, which is composed of Semri, Kaimur, Rewa and Bhander group. The use of Principle Component Analysis (PCA) has been demonstrated for Vindhyan sediments for provenance analysis. The first principle component PC1 reflects the degree of weathering, due to feldspar alteration while the second principle component PC2 discriminates the composition of unweathered parent rock. Along with conventional weathering indices, the W index, and associated MFW ternary diagram have been demonstrated for predicting weathering trends and composition of unweathered source rock. Compositional trends are also worked out on SiO2/Al2O3 – Na2O/K2O diagram for understanding the effect of hydraulic sorting and subsequently to understand sediment recycling. These sorts of studies help to understand the basin palaeo-dynamics and basin evolution. Detailed studies help in understanding reservoir and source facies development. In association with model ages like from radiogenic isotopic systems of Sm – Nd etc, exploration activities are greatly helped by holistic understanding of the basin.

Reservoir Characterisation & Chemical Applications

Session Introduction

Rafik Baouche
University of Boumerdes, Algeria
Title: Geological Analysis and Fracture Networks of Shaly Sand Formations from Borehole Images (FMI) in the Ordovician/Devonian units of Illizi Basin. Algeria

Biography: Rafik Baouche received a Magister degree in Geophysical Applications from the University of Boumerdes (Algeria) and a Doctorate of Earth Sciences from the University of Boumerdes and University of Rennes1, France in 2008. He is currently a member of the Laboratory of the Earth Sciences in the Faculty of Hydrocarbons and Chemistry at Boumerdes (35000), Algeria. From 1998 through to 2014 has been a member of the Laboratory of the Physical Earth (LABOPHYT). Also, he is a reviewer of the Earth Sciences Journals of Geology and Geophysics. Teacher Log analyst until today, he was a consultant of graduate and post graduate students. R_baouche@yahoo.fr

Abstract: The Ordovician and Devonian unit interpretations for the Formation Micro Imager data are recorded both in the Illizi basin, Algeria. These are located in the Eastern part of Algeria very close to the Algerian Field. The interested zone (Ordovician unit) stretches actually from the bottom of the section up to 2332m (MD) and the recorded Full Micro Image (FMI) has been acquired in a log up and covers the interval 2475m – 1658m (MD). The goal of this study is mainly the analysis of stratigraphy and structural sequences in the Ordovician and Devonian Units of this region. After a detailed picking the sedimentary and structural, the events are identified through the FMI processed image with classification as bed boundaries, cross-beddings, erosive surfaces and conductive faults or resistive fracture. Available data on all fractures in the Ordovician are collected during investigations and excavations of Physics, Laboratory SH Exploration (Sonatrach) in Algeria. The objectives of the use of neural networks are here first to examine the effectiveness of neural networks for the processing of these data and secondly, to improve the classification of sets of fractures. Fracture distribution model and reservoir productivity (Worthington, 1985) can be estimated for the purpose of flow simulation in a fractured reservoir. Properly assessing, the role of natural fractures can result in early field development successes and can lay the groundwork for later development stages, including other recovery projects. The results of this study provided useful and essential information for scientific researches in these areas and production hydrocarbon rates assessment.

El Sayed Zaki
Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Egypt
Title: A Green Polymerization in petroleum and industrial applications

Biography: Dr. E.G.ZAKI had his PhD from Mansoura University, Egypt, published several reasrch articles and two books in german publisher about surfactants as corrosion inhibitors. He is reviewer in many journals and many conferences, invited speakers in many conferences .His research interest includes, applied chemistry,surfactants,corrosion chemistry. He is member in Royal Society of Chemistry( MRSC), Society of Petroleum engineers ( SPE), Egyptian Corrosion Society (ECS), The Arab Society of Material Science, Asia-Pacific Chemical, Biological& Environmental Engineering Society (APCBEES), The Egyptian Society of Polymer Science and Technology (ESPST).

Abstract: This study show several of the principles of green chemistry. The starting material is biodegradable,readily available, and theoretically renewable. The procedure requires no organic solvents. The poly(succinimide) intermediate is easily rid of any water-soluble moieties.. Sodium poly(aspartate) is an antiscaling agent, biodegradable and is made from an amino acid that is biodegradable, aqueous solutions of it that go down the drain can potentially leave the plumbingcleaner, readily available, and theoretically renewable. Sodium poly(aspartate) is an exampleof a step-growth polymer, a class that includes many of the synthetic polymers with which students will already be familiar. As a polymer of an amino acid, sodium poly(aspartate) is also an example of a polypeptide. However,it is not a protein because it lacks the folding and function characteristic of proteins. Thus, the example of this polymer serves as a useful bridge to connect the realms of synthetic polymers and natural biopolymers. and also used as green corrosion inhibitor. The inhibition efficiency has been studied using chemical (weight loss) and electrochemical (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization) techniques

Taman, Radwa M
Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, Egypt
Title: Waste water treatment by Nano technology

Biography: Radwa Morad is a Corrosion and Chemical Engineer in Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, oil Production Company located in Egypt and joint venture with British Petroleum Company. She is a graduate of Chemical Engineering, Alexandria University since 2010. After graduation, she worked as a Process Engineer in Alexandria Sewage and Drainage Water Company for one year and six months alongside, Chemical Instructor in Arab Academy for Science and Technology in Alexandria. Then has been hired to GUPCO since February, 2014 up to date. She completed her Master’s Degree in Chemical Engineering at Alexandria University in 2014 and currently preparing Pre-PhD in Chemical Engineering as well. Radwa published a paper with the title of “Metal Oxide Nano-particles as an Adsorbent for Removal of Heavy metals” in Journal of Advanced Chemical Engineering.

Abstract: There are many applications for waste water treatment ,one of the most important and effective methods is Adsorption .Also it will be very useful to combine this treatment application with the Nano technology .In this study adsorption process performance was assessed using metal oxide nano particles for wastewater treatment containing heavy metals in a laboratory scale reactor. Copper oxide Nano-particles were prepared and fully characterized considering their adsorption properties (surface area and pore size distribution) as well as their chemical structure and morphology. The adsorption of heavy metals, including Fe3+ and Cd2+ was studied in batch experiments. Various physico-chemical parameters such as pH, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent dosage level and equilibrium contact time were studied. The adsorption of Cd2+ and Fe3+ ions increased with an increase in pH. The optimum solution pH for adsorption of both metals from aqueous solutions was 6. Adsorption was rapid and occurred within the first 20 min for both metals within different solution concentrations (250,100,50and 25 mg/L). The kinetic of Cd2+ and Fe3+ adsorption onto Copper oxide nano particles was well fitted by the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The equilibrium adsorption data for Cd2+ was best fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model, but for Fe3+ adsorption, it was found that Freundlich adsorption isotherm model is the best model to describe it. The selectivity order of the adsorbent is Fe3+ > Cd2+. From these results, it can be concluded that the CuO nano particles is a promising adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

Drilling & Well Operations & Enhanced Oil & Gas Recovery

Session Introduction

Annett Dorner-Reisel
University of Applied Sciences Schmalkalden, Germany
Title: Wear behaviour of Tungsten Carbide reinforced NiBSi overlays in oil and sandy oil

Biography: Professor Dr.-Ing. habil. Annett Dorner-Reisel did her PhD at the Technical University of Chemnitz, Germany. During a 6 month stay as guest researcher at the University of California at Santa Barbara, USA, she mainly concentrated on Raman spectroscopy and fibre-matris-interface investigations. After returning to Germany, started established a research group at Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg dealing with carbon modifications, light weigth – and biomaterials. Focus of her work were thin and thick films, composites made of high performance carbon and other intelligent materials. In 2004 Professor Dorner-Reisel finshed her second doctoral degree (Habilitation). During her work in Industry, she was in duty for developing pre-production stage technologies for actuator production for diesel fuel injection systems at Siemens VDO Automotive GmbH and Continental AG. In Sept. 2011, she received a Professorship at the University of Applied Sciences in Schmalkalden, Thuringia, Germany. She focus research on both strucutural and functional materials. Biomaterials, smart materials, bionics in different applications, biogenic materials, tribology in fuels and oil are topic of research.

Abstract: Tungsten carbide (WC) reinforced Ni-based overlays are widely used in the oil sands industry to provide protection in low stress sliding abrasion, slurry abrasion and erosion–corrosion conditions. [1] In the following study, tungsten carbide reinforced NiBSi coatings were deposited on structural steel S 235 by plasma transferred arc welding. The tungsten carbide fraction is 60 %. The translatory oscillation test according DIN EN 51834 proofs the sliding wear behaviour of materials as well as the lubricity of oils. There is a high degree of sliding applied, which effects several basic mechanism of wear. In the present study, WC-Co and Al2O3 balls were used as counterbodies against WC/NiBSi-flats. The wear tests are performed under dry conditions or oil lubrication. Although, the coefficient of friction (COF) is lowest under oil lubrication, a higher wear rate was evident on the WC-NiBSi PTA cladded overlay, if engine oil is used. In the case of sandy oils, there are sliding of the counterbody ball against the PTA coating as well as microabrasion due to moving sand particles. The fluid properties of the oil in terms of viscosity, wettability of the sand particles and its transport in the oil are be essential for the wear behaviour of the PTA coated surfaces.

Baojiang Sun
China University of Petroleum, China
Title: An improved simulation method for transient gas-liquid two phase flow in wellbores

Biography: Prof. Baojiang Sun did his PhD in Fluid Mechanics from Peking University, China. He has a experience of 31 years in research and holds several posts such as Cheung Kong Scholar Chair Professor, China’s Ministry of Education, Chief Scientist of the National Basic Research Program (973 Program), China’s Ministry of science and technology, the dean of School of Petroleum Engineering, China University of Petroleum. He has published more than 100 research articles and received several prestigious awards including National Science and Technology Progress Award 2007. His research interests include oil and gas well drilling, offshore oil and gas engineering, multi-phase flow and its application in petroleum engineering, super-critical CO2 using in unconventional resources.

Abstract: The transient simulation of gas-liquid two phase flow in wellbores is very important and difficult. The objective of our study is to get accurate results quickly while avoid convergence problem. In order to achieve this objective, we build a flow pattern independent simulator in which a new void fraction correlation and a new solution strategy for drift flux model are proposed. The void fraction correlation is flow pattern independent and is specially developed for two phase flow in large diameter annuli. Two equations are proposed for the parameters of drift flux model based correlation, namely, the distribution parameter and the drift flux velocity. For the lack of available data, experiments have been performed to study the void fraction of vertical air-water two phase flow in large diameter annulus. The accuracy of the proposed correlation is compared with 19 frequently used correlations in literature. The solution strategy proposed in this study is a pressure based method. In the algorithm the staggered grid finite volume method and the fully implicit backward Euler method are adopted for the spatial discretization and time integration schemes. In pressure correction, iteration and traversal are combined to to ensure the convergence. The comparison with the Roe solver shows that the new method has a good performance for different time or space steps. A full scale experiment is also conducted to testify the new simulator. The comparison of simulation and experiment shows that the pressure difference between simulation data and experimental data is very small for the entire experiment time span.

Timo Saksala
Tampere University of Technology, Finland
Title: Predicting the rate of penetration in percussive drilling by finite elements simulation

Biography: Dr. Saksala obtained his Ph.D. (2010) in Mechanical Engineering from Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Tampere, Finland. His research interests include numerical modeling of rock fracture in general and percussive drilling in particular. He has published 37 scientific articles in journals and conference prodeedings. Presently, Dr. Saksala works as a postdoc researcher at TUT.

Abstract: Percussive drilling is often used in hard rock formations due to its efficiency in terms of rate of penetration (ROP). On the other hand, despite the considerable research effort devoted thus far, the fracture mechanisms in tool-rock interaction during percussive drilling are not fully understood. The percussive drilling principle is based on an impact induced compressive stress wave that forces hard metal inserts (bit buttons) in the drill bit to penetrate into the rock. The penetration results in material removal through direct fragmentation of rock beneath the buttons and, more importantly, lateral chipping by the coalescence of the side cracks induced by individual buttons. In the development and optimization of drill bits, sound understanding of these fracture mechanisms is crucial. In the present work, a finite elements based numerical code is employed in an attempt to predict the rate of penetration in hard rock percussive drilling with a typical multiple-button bit. In this method, the rock is described as a viscoplastic damaging material and the bit-rock interaction is modelled by contact mechanics approach while the system equations are solved with explicit time marching. A criterion to predict the ROP based on single impact is first developed. Then, multiple impacts while rotating the bit between the impacts (indexing) are simulated in order to demonstrate the validity of the single impact ROP prediction scheme.

Enas Nashef
Masdar Institute of Science and Technology, UAE
Title: Using Novel Benign Solvents in Enhanced Oil Recovery

Biography: Dr. Enas Nashef joined King Saud University, Saudi Arabia, after obtaining his Ph. D. from the University of South Carolina in 2004. In 2011, he was promoted to associate professor. Nashef was very active in research related to green engineering and sustainability. In 2014, he joined Masdar Institute of Science and Technology at Abu Dhabi. Dr. Nashef co-authored more than 80 peer-reviewed journal publications. In addition, he received 7 patents from US and EU Patent Offices. He is also a recipient of several prestigious awards including King Abdullah Award for best invention in 2013.

Abstract: Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) have attracted considerable attention in many fields of scientific research. Owing to their low vapor pressure ILs were qualified as green solvents. However, the”green affiliation” of ILs is now contested by many research groups. The hazardous toxicity and the very poor biodegradability of many ILs have been reported in the literature. ILs with high purity are also required since impurities, even in trace amounts, affect their physical properties. These drawbacks together with the high price of common ILs delayed their industrial applications and new concepts are now strongly needed in order to utilize these systems in a more rational way. To overcome these drawbacks, a new generation of solvent, named Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES), has emerged as alternative to ILs in many applications. Formation of these DESs can be obtained by simply mixing together two or more components, that can be chosen to be cheap, renewable and biodegradable. These compounds are capable of forming a eutectic mixture with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are generally liquid at temperatures lower than 100 °C. Owing to these advantages, there is now of growing interest in DESs in many fields of research. DESs are chemically tailorable solvents since they can be designed by properly combining various quaternary ammonium or phosphonium salts with different hydrogen bond donors or complexing agents. Hence, task-specific DESs with different physical-chemical properties can be prepared. It should also be noted that although components of DESs are potentially reactive chemicals, their auto- association by a hydrogen bond drastically limits their reactivity, allowing their use in many fields of research. In this work, we discuss the main applications of DESs relevant to oil, gas, and Petrochemistry.

Hossein Jalalifar
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran
Title: A Three Dimensional Failure Criterion for Deep Rocks Using Experimental and Nonlinear Regression Methods

Biography: Prof. Jalalifar is working in mining and petroleum departments, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran as academic staff. He published more than 180 Journal and conference papers and published one rock mechanics’s Persian book and translated an English book in field of tunneling and also has written two English books’s chapters in field of rock bolting and wellbore stability.

Abstract: A rock failure criterion is a relation among strength parameters of the rock and stress state. It presents a bounded area in the principal stress coordinate system. The relation is determined both empirically and analytically. A majority of rock mechanics community believes that mean principal stress (σ2) has not a significant role in failure process; hence many failure criteria are presented without it in two dimensions. However, some experimental observations indicate that mean principal stress may have an important role in failure process of certain cases or at least for certain rocks. Deep buried competent rocks are of this category. In this paper, results of 175 tri-axial compressive tests on 5 specimens have been used to study the effect of σ2. Studies showed that σ2 has a more prominent effect in competent rocks than weak rocks. Then, accuracy of 3D criteria of von Mises, Drucker-Prager, Pan and Hudson on the determination of failure process of theses specimens were studied. Drucker-Prager criterion with 0.87, Pan and Hudson with 0.73 and von Mises with 0.5 coefficients of correlation showed the best to worst predictions. Also using non-linear regression, a new criterion with 0.98 coefficient of correlation was proposed. The new criterion utilizes all principal stresses with appropriate weighting coefficients, uniaxial compressive strength and internal friction angle.

Lee Se Jin
Hyundai Engineering & Construction Co., Ltd, Korea
Title: CO2 Geological Storage Pilot project in Pohang Basin, South Korea

Biography: Mr. Lee received his BS in geology from the university of Korea, he also has Professional Engineer(P.E.) in Geology and geotechnics. His research interest includes, CO2 geological storage, and tunneling.

Abstract: Asia’s first offshore carbon dioxide storage pilot project is performed in a saline aquifer in Pohang Basin in South Korea. This pilot project aims at in-situ testing of geological storage of CO2 in a saline aquifer and it is supported by Government(Ministry of Trade Industy and Energy). For this project, the drilling of one injection well and installation of CO2 injection facilities including offshore platform have been conducted in 200m away from onshore. Pilot project site location was determined based on the results of seismic survey and drilling investigation by CO2 geological storage Co-research group including Kongju National University, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources(KIGAM), Korea National Oil Company(KNOC) and Hyundai E&C, etc. Storage formations consist of mainly sandstone and some conglomerate with mudstone at a depth of 740~780m. Based on the analyses performed, these formation have storage capacity range from 0.27 to 0.4million CO2 tonnes. In this pilot project, Hyundai E&C is responsible for the design, construction, and supervision of the injection well and offshore platform. 4-step casing was designed for the injection well to maintain hole integrity. Also cementing between casing and ground was designed for CO2 security and leakage. The offshore platform is composed of topside(25.0m×25.0m×5.4m) and jarket(19.7m×19.7m×20.5m) structure. The jarket structure was selected because it can ensure the stability of offshore platform and it is economical compared to other types of structure. Now, almost all of the injection facilities were constructed and CO2 injection will be started in December.

Hossein Amani
Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Iran
Title: Biosurfactants and enhanced oil recovery

Biography: Dr. Hossein Aamani did his PhD from university of Tehrana, Iran, he has published several reasrch articles about oil recovery using biosurfatnts. His research intrest includes, Biosurfactants , Oil recovery and Cell biology research..

Abstract: Recently, several investigations have been carried out on the in situ bacteria flooding, but the ex situ biosurfactant production and addition to the sand pack as agents for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) has little been studied. In order to develop suitable technology for ex situ MEOR processes, it is essential to carry out tests about it. Therefore, this work tries to fill the gap. The intention of this study was to investigate whether the rhamnolipid mix could be produced in high enough quantities for enhanced oil recovery in the laboratory scale and prove its potential use as an effective material for field application. In this work, the ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MM1011 to grow and produce rhamnolipid on sunflower as sole carbon source under nitrogen limitation was shown. The rhamnolipid mixture obtained was able to reduce the surface and interfacial tension of water to 26 and 2 mN/m, respectively. The critical micelle concentration was 120 mg/L. The stability of the rhamnolipid at different salinities, pH and temperature, and also, its emulsifying activity has been investigated. It is an effective surfactant at very low concentrations over a wide range of temperatures, pHs, and salt concentrations, and it also has the ability to emulsify oil, which is essential for enhanced oil recovery. With120 mg/L rhamnolipid, 27 % of original oil in place was recovered after water flooding from a sand pack. This result not only suggests rhamnolipids as appropriate model biosurfactants for MEOR, but it even shows the potential as a biosurfactant of choice for actual MEOR applications.

Marwa EL-Ashry
Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, Egypt
Title: Carbon Capture Storage and Utilization

Biography: Marwa EL-Ashry is a Corrosion and Chemical Engineer in Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, oil Production Company located in Egypt and joint venture with British Petroleum Company. She is a graduate of Petroleum and Petrochemical Engineering, Cairo University since 2012. After graduation, she worked as a Process Engineer in Advanced Energy Services Company for one year and six months then has been hired to GUPCO since May, 2014 up to date. Marwa has completed her pre-masters studies in Engineering Risk Management at Cairo University and currently going forward with her thesis which linked between her current work and risk management. Moreover, she is a member in the Society of Corrosion Engineers and Society of Chemical Engineers.

Abstract: Carbon dioxide is one of the major pollutants in the atmosphere as its major sources are fossil fuels burning and deforestation and it causes greenhouse effect. Therefore this paper presents solutions to reduce CO2 emissions, because when carbon dioxide once released, it will stay for 100 years in the atmosphere. It is now widely accepted that increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and in particular carbon dioxide emissions are the major contributor to global warming. In this fossil fuel-dominated economy, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) technologies have the potential to allow us to use fossil fuels with reduced CO2 emissions. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation. The aim is to prevent the release of large quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere (from fossil fuel use in power generation and other industries). It is a potential means of mitigating the contribution of fossil fuel emissions to global warming and ocean acidification. Although CO2 has been injected into geological formations for several decades for various purposes including enhanced oil recovery. As an alternative to storing captured CO2 in geological formations or in the oceans or in mineral form as carbonates. Carbon dioxide utilization is the most economical and environmentally friendly solution for the carbon dioxide emissions as it can be used either directly in end products (as beverages, lasers,etc.) or as feedstock in chemical processes as ( methane, methanol and urea) that produce valuable carbon containing products.

Olugbenga Falode
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Title: IMPACT OF POROELASTIC RESERVOIR ON FRACTURE CREATIONImpact of poroelastic reservoir on fracture creation and growth during water injection

Biography: Olugbenga Falode holds PhD Degree in Petroleum Engineering from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. He has published widely in reputable journals. He is currently a Senior Lecturer in the same Department. He is also a Senior Research Fellow and Lecturer at the Centre for Petroleum, Energy Economics and Law (CPEEL), University of Ibadan. A common thread running through his research interests focus on flow assurance and using material engineering in developing inexpensive green materials for flow assurance and hydrocarbon recovery. He was former Head of Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Ibadan. He is currently the Deputy Director (Admin) at CPEEL.

Abstract: An accurate oil recovery simulation requires a detailed description of fracture growth during water injection. However, there has not yet been any reservoir simulator that explicitly considers “dynamic” fracture growth during waterflood or EOR processes. In this study, we developed a mechanistic model (porosity reduction and permeability reduction models) that accounts explicitly for the impact of poroelasticity of the rock on fracture growth and then tie in this model to the CMG-STARS in a reservoir simulator during water injection. The model is then implemented into a reservoir simulator, so that dynamic growth of fractures, changes in fracture orientation and effect of poroelastic property can be calculated during the oil displacement simulations. This allows us to evaluate the impacts of different parameters such as well patterns, complex well trajectories and injection rates on oil recovery. Then the result obtained from the reservoir simulator when the mechanistic model is incorporated into the reservoir simulator and the result is compared with that of Lee results which shows that modelling the reservoir fracture effects without considering the effect of the poroelastic properties of the reservoir tends to give an optimistic result, that is, for same injection rate, time duration and fracture length as this was actually compared with actual field data. Hence, considering the poroelastic property of the reservoir rock tends to help to truly characterize the reservoir as the result tends to give a closer result as compared to Lee’s work.

Olugbenga Falode
University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Title: Rheological and filtration properties of oil based muds formulated from some plant oils

Biography: Olugbenga Falode holds PhD Degree in Petroleum Engineering from the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. He has published widely in reputable journals. He is currently a Senior Lecturer in the same Department. He is also a Senior Research Fellow and Lecturer at the Centre for Petroleum, Energy Economics and Law (CPEEL), University of Ibadan. A common thread running through his research interests focus on flow assurance and using material engineering in developing inexpensive green materials for flow assurance and hydrocarbon recovery. He was former Head of Petroleum Engineering Department, University of Ibadan. He is currently the Deputy Director (Admin) at CPEEL.

Abstract: This study was designed to formulate environmentally friendly plant-based drilling fluids. Oils were extracted from Jatropha, Moringa, Sesame and Castor seeds and used to formulate oil drilling muds (OBM). Rheological and filtration properties of the muds were determined at ambient and high temperature and pressure (HPHT) with API Rheometer and Filter Press respectively. Retort and electrical stability tests were also done. Results show that over the shear rate range of 5.1-1022sec-1, the rheograms of the plant based OBM exhibit Bingham plastic behaviour at both low and high shear rates. The pH range of 8.6 to 9.2 obtained for the samples falls within the allowable range of 8.5 to 9.5. Fluid loss from the HTHP filtration test on all samples had oil volume less than 10ml and water volume as low as 0.2ml which is a good indication that the emulsifying agent was effective. The emulsion stability values obtained were in the range of 524 to 1070 which shows that the muds were electrically stable and suitable as potential oil based mud. The retort analysis indicates high percentage of oil within the range of 85 to 95 %. It was observed that Moringa, Jatropha and Sesame OBM’s have desirable rheological properties comparable to diesel OBM.

Fadairo Adesina
Covenant University, Nigeria
Title: Applicability of Scale Software Algorithm for Predicting Barite Scale Saturation around the Wellbore

Biography: Fadairo Adesina graduated from University of Ibadan with both B.Sc and M.sc in Petroleum Engineering. He worked as a researcher for several years at Petroleum Technology Development Fund and U.I – Chevron Studies in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Fadairo holds his PhD in Petroleum engineering and equally working as a lecturer in Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria, lecturing various courses in petroleum engineering department at undergraduate levels since 2004. His research career development is channeled towards operational viable research in different areas of petroleum engineering field, ranging from reservoir to well bore, to the surface production facilities challenges. He has authored/co-authored over thirty-five (35) research papers in high impact international journals and conferences proceeding.

Abstract: The characterization and remediation of barite scale deposition requires description and classification of mixing, precipitation, buildup and formation damage scenarios. The themodynamic model based algorithm used OLI scalechem and reported by Amiri and Moghadasi (2010) is capable of predicting and expressing the effect of different variables such as pressure, temperature, ions, and pH on the behaviour of mixture of incompatible waters, scaling tendency, amount of scale precipitates within the content of the reservoir. Successful flow assurance of reservoir fluids during water flooding when the injected and formation waters are incompatible, demands for accurate prediction of the fraction of scale that occupies pore spaces around the wellbore. The present work demonstrates the use and applicability of the algorithm for predicting barium sulphate saturation around the wellbore. The innovative feature in this paper is the integration of thermodynamics, kinetics and mass transfer models for the prediction of fraction of scale that occupied pore spaces around the production wells. The key variables that governing the fraction of scale that occupies near wellbore pore spaces are not limited to thermodynamic and brine chemistry parameters but operational, fluid and reservoir parameters have been identified as paramount variables that promote barium sulphate scale deposition.

Yekeen Adeboye
University of Lagos, Nigeria
Title: Enhanced oil recovery from oil-wet carbonate rock with locally sourced chemical substances


Abstract: Economic optimization of the development and production of hydrocarbon reservoirs requires supplementing primary and secondary oil recovery with enhanced oil recovery phase through water injection, miscible gas injection, chemical injection and thermal processes. Enhanced oil recovery through chemical injection as a tertiary recovery method is a mechanism to recover more oil, extend field life and increase the profitability of the field. Besides, chemical flooding helps to optimize the microscopic displacement efficiency, making effective contact with oil in the reservoirs and maintaining good mobility in order to lessen the effect of viscous fingering. In this study, the potentiality of locally sourced chemical substances to recover oil from oil -wet carbonate rocks is experimentally investigated. This was achieved by flooding four aged core samples having average pore volume, bulk volume and initial oil in place (OIIP) of 18.70cm3, 59.60cm3 and 16.48cm3 respectively with local gin, palm wine and starch solution and measured volume of oil recovered respectively. The effective performance of each chemical substance as displacing agent was measured by comparing the recovered oil volume with that obtained with brine which is commonly used in different field locations in Niger Delta, Nigeria. The result showed that when four aged core samples designated as A1, B1, C1 and D1 were flooded with local gin, palm wine, starch and brine having concentration of 20,000ppm respectively, percentage oil recovered was 82.99%, 75.19%, 57.40% and 50.69% respectively. The result shows that the oil recovery performance of all the chemical substances considered is higher than that of brine with local gin being the highest and starch solution the least.